CNC machining is the manufacturing process of engraving or cutting materials to obtain the final product. When using a CNC router machine
to process raw materials, the feed rate and cutting speed are two parameters that are often mentioned. This is because they ensure the optimization of different parts of the CNC machining process. While cutting speed is more important in optimizing factors like tool life and power consumption, the feed rate is vital in determining the machining time and roughness of the finished area.
What is cutting speed and factors affecting cutting speed
Cutting speed is generally defined as the relative velocity between the surface of the workpiece and the cutting tool. Some experts also define it as how fast the workpiece moves past the cutting edge of the tool. Machinists measure it in meters per minute (m/min) or feet per minute (ft/min). The cutting speed is a quite important factor in the determination of other parameters of CNC machining, such as cutting temperature, power consumption, tool life, etc. Its influence in these parameters serves as a significant difference between feed rate and cutting speed.
It is necessary to ensure that the cutting speed is optimum so that the CNC machining process will give the best part. The factors that affect the optimal cutting speed of CNC machining include the following:
One of the most important factors that determine cutting speed is the hardness of the material being cut. The harder the material, the slower the cutting speed, and vice versa.
Cutting Tool Material
There are different lathe tools used for various CNC machining. Each of these tools is also made with different materials, hence possessing different hardness properties. The cutting tool material will have a significant impact on the cutting speed used in a machining process. If the cutting material is of high strength, the machinist can utilize a high cutting speed to a little detriment. However, softer cutting tool materials will tend to wear out quickly with higher cutting speeds. In order to maintain the life of the tool, it is often necessary to reduce the cutting speed.
What is Feed Rate and factors affecting feed rate
Feed rate is the distance which the cutting tool during one spindle revolution. It is also defined as the velocity at which the cutter is advanced against the workpiece. Machinists use the inches per minute or millimeters per minute (ipm or mpm) for milling processes to express.
The optimization of the feed rate is also quite important in CNC machining processes. To determine its optimum value, machinists consider factors such as the ones below:
Any cut width that is less than half the diameter causes chip thinning. Chip thinning is a manufacturing defect where the chipload (amount of material cut by the tool in one revolution) is reduced. Chip thinning could lead to a longer lead time; hence it is important to avoid it. In addition, increasing the feed rate will help reduce the effects of chip thinning, hence, increasing productivity and tool life.
Determining the optimal feed rate and cutting speed might be the factors that enhance your CNC machining process to get an qualified workpieces. Only when the cnc router machine runs in the best state, can it ensure the highest processing efficiency and obtain a longer service life.
As a professional manufacturer of cnc machines
, ACCTEK will provide you with more training and technical support when you purchase the machine. If you have engraving and cutting needs, you can consult online at any time.