Traditional industrial cleaning equipment mostly uses chemical agents and mechanical methods for cleaning. Under the circumstance that environmental protection requirements are becoming more and more stringent and people's awareness of environmental protection and safety is increasing, the types of chemicals that can be used in industrial cleaning are becoming less and less. How to find a cleaner and less damaging cleaning method is a problem we must consider.
Laser cleaning machine has the cleaning characteristics of no grinding, non-contact, low thermal effect and suitable for objects of various materials, and is considered to be the most reliable and effective solution. Due to the complex composition and structure of the attachments on the surface of the object, the mechanisms of the laser acting on them are also different. The most common theoretical models used to explain this are the following:
The laser generated by the laser cleaning machine can be concentrated by the optical system to achieve a high concentration of energy. The focused laser beam can generate a high temperature of several thousand degrees or even tens of thousands of degrees near the focal point, which will instantly vaporize or decompose the attachments on the surface of the object.
2. Light peeling
The action of the laser causes the surface attachments to expand by heat. When the expansion force of the surface attachments is greater than the adsorption force between it and the substrate, the surface attachments will be detached from the surface of the object.
3. Light vibration
A pulsed laser with higher frequency and power is used to impact the surface of the object to generate ultrasonic waves on the surface of the object. The ultrasonic wave returns after hitting the middle and lower hard surfaces, and interferes with the incident sound wave, thereby generating high-energy resonant waves, causing the dirt to burst and smash microscopically and detach from the surface of the matrix material.
This cleaning method can be selected when the absorption coefficient of the laser beam between the object and the surface attachment is not much different, or the surface attachment will produce toxic substances after being heated.
At present, there is no uniform standard for the structure of laser cleaning equipment, which needs to be determined according to the actual cleaning method, the type of substrate and dirt, and the effect of cleaning requirements. However, they are still roughly the same in some basic structures, mainly including lasers, mobile platforms, real-time monitoring systems, operating systems and other auxiliary systems.