What are the components of a laser cutting machine
18 Sep , 2020
Laser cutting machines have been used in all walks of life, but there are still a lot of people do not know much about laser cutting machines, today let's take a look at what laser cutting machines are composed of.
Laser cutting machines
have been used in all walks of life, but there are still a lot of people do not know much about laser cutting machines, today let's take a look at what laser cutting machines are composed of.
1) Main machine part: the mechanical part of the laser cutting machine to realize X, Y and Z axis movement, including the cutting working platform.It is used to place the cutting workpiece and move it correctly according to the control program, usually driven by a servo motor.
2) Laser generator: The device that produces the laser source.Because laser cutting requires high beam quality, not all lasers can be used for cutting.
3) External optical path: the refractor is used to guide the laser toward the desired direction.In order to prevent beam path failure, all mirrors should be protected with a protective cover, and clean positive pressure shielding gas should be introduced to protect the lens from contamination.A group of well-performing lenses focuses a beam of light with no Angle of divergence into infinitesimal points.Lenses with a focal length of 5.0 inches are usually used.A 7.5-inch lens is used only for materials thicker than 12 millimeters.
4) NUMERICAL control system: control the movement of X, Y and Z axes of the machine tool, and control the laser output power.
5) Adjust power supply: connect laser and CNC machine tools with power supply system.Mainly to prevent interference from external power grid.
6) Cutting head: Mainly including cavity, focusing lens seat, focusing mirror, capacitance sensor, auxiliary gas nozzle and other components.The cutting head driving device is used to drive the cutting head along the Z-axis direction according to the program and is composed of a servo motor, a screw or gear and other driving components.
7) Workbench: used to control the working process of the whole cutting device.
8) Refrigerator: Used for cooling laser generator.A laser is a device that converts electrical energy into light energy.For example, CO2 gas lasers typically have a conversion rate of 20%, with the remaining energy converted into heat.Cooling water takes away the excess heat to ensure the normal operation of the laser generator.The refrigerator also cools the reflector and focusing mirror of the external optical path of the machine tool to ensure the stable beam transmission quality and effectively prevent the lens from deforming or cracking due to high temperature.
9) Gas cylinders: including working medium gas cylinders and auxiliary gas cylinders.Laser cutting machines are used to supplement the industrial gas of laser vibration and auxiliary gas of cutting head.
10) Air compressor and air storage tank: provide and store compressed air.
11) Air-cooled dryers and filters: Used to provide clean dry air to the laser generator and beam channel to maintain the normal operation of the channel and reflector.
12) Waste gas dust collector: the dust and dust produced in the processing process is extracted and filtered to make the waste gas meet the environmental protection standard.
13) Slag extractor: Remove the residue and waste products produced in the processing process.
In recent years, laser processing technology has developed rapidly and been applied more and more widely.Therefore, lasers are called "universal machining tools" and "universal machining tools for future manufacturing systems".Laser processing technology is widely used in industrial countries, and its production technology is undergoing a qualitative change.Laser cutting technology is the main application of laser technology in industry.It accelerates the transformation of traditional processing industry and provides a new way for modern industrial processing.It has become a widely used laser processing method in the field of industrial processing, accounting for more than 70% of the whole laser processing industry.
Laser cutting is the use of a focused high power density laser beam irradiation of the workpiece.More than laser in the laser power density threshold under the premise of active gas auxiliary cutting process of laser beam energy and additional chemical reaction heat energy absorbed by the material, all lead to laser point temperature rise sharply, material after boiling evaporated, as the relative motion of the beam and the workpiece, material forming cutting seam, finally cutting seam and sediments were auxiliary gas blows away.
It has the advantages of wide cutting range, fast cutting speed, narrow cutting seam, good cutting quality, small heat-affected area, large additive flexibility and so on, and has been widely used in modern industry.Laser cutting technology has also become one of the mature technologies of laser machining.Compared with other light, laser has the characteristics of high brightness, high directivity, high monochromatism and high coherence.Because of these four characteristics, laser has been widely used, which brings the following valuable characteristics that traditional processing does not have:
(1) Non-contact processing is adopted, and the energy and motion speed of the laser beam can be adjusted, so a variety of processing can be achieved.
(2) It can process a variety of metals and nonmetals, especially the materials with high hardness, high brittleness and high melting point.
(3) In the laser processing process, the workpiece has no "tool" wear, there is no "cutting force" effect.
(4) Laser processing has the characteristics of small heat affected area, small thermal deformation and small subsequent processing.
(5) The laser can process all kinds of workpiece in the closed container through the transparent medium.
(6) Laser is easy to guide.By focusing, changes in all directions can be realized, and it is easy to work with the NUMERICAL control system to process complex workpiece.Therefore, laser cutting is a very flexible cutting method.
(7) Laser processing has high production efficiency, stable and reliable processing quality, and remarkable economic and social benefits