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Analyze the core components of CNC machine tools
Updatetime: 2021-07-12 16:07View:

Organization and carrier

   Nc program is the work instruction of cnc machine tool automatic machining parts.On the basis of process analysis of parts, determine the part coordinate system in the machine tool coordinate system of the relative position, namely, the relative parts in machine tools installation location, the size of the cutter and parts of relative movement parameters, process route or machining sequence of parts processing, machining parameters and auxiliary device action, such as parts of all sports, size and technical parameters of parts processing process route or the processing sequence, the machining process parameter and auxiliary device action, etc.The work of programming may be done manually or by an automatic programming computer system other than CNC machines;For more advanced CNC machine tools, it can be directly programmed on its CNC device.The nc program is stored on a storage carrier that is easy to input into the NC device, such as magnetic card, disk, etc. Which storage carrier is adopted depends on the design type of the NC device.

Input device

   The function of the input device is to change the NUMERICAL control code on the program carrier into corresponding electrical pulse signal, which is transmitted and stored in the numerical control device.Depending on the program storage medium, the input device may be an optoelectronic device such as a reader, a recorder, or a floppy disk drive.Some NUMERICAL control machine tools do not use any program storage carrier, but the content of the numerical control program single on the numerical control device keyboard, using MDI input, or the numerical control program from the programming computer through communication transmission to the numerical control device.


Numerical control device and strong electric control device

   Numerical control device is the core of numerical control machine tool, it receives the pulse signal sent by the input device, through the system software of numerical control device or logic circuit to compile, transport and logic processing, output a variety of signals and instructions to control each part of the machine tool, for the specified, ordered action.Among these control signals, the most basic signal is the feed displacement, feed direction and speed instruction of each coordinate axis (i.e. the executing part that does the feed motion) determined by interpolation operation, which is driven by the servo drive system to do the feed motion of the executing part.

   The strong electric control device is a control system between the numerical control device, machine tool machinery and hydraulic components.Its main role is to receive the numerical control device output of the main speed change, tool selection and replacement and auxiliary device action command signals, after the necessary compilation, logic judgment and power amplification directly drive the corresponding electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic and mechanical components, to complete the command component specified action.

Servo drive system and position detection device

   The servo drive system is composed of a servo drive circuit and a servo drive device. The actuating parts and mechanical transmission parts on the machine tool constitute the feed system of the CNC machine tool. The feed speed, direction and displacement of the actuating parts are controlled according to the speed and displacement instructions sent by the CNC device.The position detection device indirectly or directly measures the actual feed displacement of the executing part and compares it with the instruction displacement to drive the feed movement of the executing part after the error conversion and amplification.


Mechanical components

   The mechanical parts of CNC machine tools include main moving parts, feed moving execution parts, working tables, drag plates and their driving parts, bed columns and other supporting parts, as well as cooling, lubrication, chip removal, deflection and clamping auxiliary devices.CNC machine tools for machining centers, as well as the storage of tools, tools to replace the manipulator and other components.

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